Writings of Sikkim since 2007

Thursday, December 31, 2009

Sikkim Wallpaper and the best wishes for the new year 2010

Many Many best wishes to everyone for the new year 2010. May all you expectations in coming year bring you joy and happiness around.

Wallpaper Designed By
Saaran Chamling 
http://www.sikkimonline.info/






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Gandhi did not say Hey Ram when shot



Gandhiji at the Hill Cart Road near Kak Jhora with Anne Beasant and Deshbandhu Chitranjan Das in 1925. One can see the Toy Train track running alongside the road as well as a hand-driven rickshaw behind. 
(c) Fallen Cicada - Unwritten History of Darjeeling Hills by Barun Roy
pic: beacononline.wordpress
The latest issue of the The Week dated December 27, 2009 had something stored for me. The cover story the national magazine was “Myths of our Time” that had few stories webbed around our cultural and social belief that had very little truth in it.    One article excited me the most and it was the sole reason that made me put forward my hand towards it when I saw it hanging in one of the shop in Gangtok. The headline of the story read “Gandhi did not say Hey Ram when shot”.
The story was against the belief of the Gandhi followers that are spread to every corner of the globe. But the fact remains strong that Gandhi did not utter anything when he was shot by Nathuram Godse with 9mm Beretta on January 30, 1948. There was no official record of what had happened when he was shot or after an hour of the incident. I checked the internet sources and even those people present at the time of the incident deny the fact that they heard Gandhi uttering any words before he was shot dead. It was nothing more than Gandhi's devotion towards Lord Ram and his vision of Ram Rajya that designer Vanu Bhuta got "Hey Ram" inscribed on the slab at Rajghat.
Mahatma Gandhi never visited Sikkim as there are no documents supporting it but he did visited Darjeeling in 1925. But Gandhi did have connection with Sikkim. He was associated with Helen Lepcha, a freedom fighter from Sikkim who had than settled at Darjeeling. It was Gandhi who transformed Helen’s name to Savitri Devi.
Until few years back before the Rangpo Guest House was made the winter home for the Governor of Sikkim. I have heard about letters send by Gandhi at Rangpo Guest House; than just a Rangpo Dak Bungalow.  But later nothing was heard off but I believe the letters are still there and the ‘person’ wants to sell them off. History is more of a myth but it is up to us to give them a distinct shape rather than make it a fabled tale.
My motive behind this particular article is to make people of my Sikkim aware of the fact that there had been certain incidents in Sikkim too that has been immortalized and has been an integral part of our social and cultural identity but their real truth are yet to be drawn out. The stories of brotherhood treaty at Kabi, ladder story of Daramdin, even the genealogy of Chogyal Dynasty and many others needs to be thoroughly researched before we give them an accurate data.  Let’s not take anything for granted. Sikkim too needs to be studied.


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Tuesday, December 29, 2009

A suggested possibility of Mermaid-like or Gangetic Dophin inbetween Rangpo - Singtam region !




30 kg  fish caught at Singtam river

I do not know how fact it is but i have come across an article ( could be written few years back) that says there is or was a suggested possibility of an existence of some kind of riverine mammals alike the fantasy of mermaids  or  it could even be a Gangetic Dolphin in the regions from Rangpo and Singtam. I am from Singtam but never heard such strange story apart from that 30 kg fish that was caught at the bank of Singtam River last year. Thou sounds fascinating but would love to read more about it.

The information provided is from the desk of a a WWF-India-Department of Science and Technology, Sikkim Project and the researchers are Dr. Ajeya Jha, Sikkim Manipal Institute of Technology and Dr. R.K. Avasthe, Indian Council for Agricultural Research. The complete article in found in the website of National Informatics Centre, Sikkim under the topic of Mammals of Sikkim. But for my readers here is the extracted portion:

 RIVERINE (FRESH WATER) MAMMALS

Fresh Water Mammals: Vague stories of “mermaids” from Rangpo and Singtam region suggest the possibility of the existence of some kind of riverine mammal in Sikkim also. Immediate efforts are required to confirm such a possibility. Gangetic Dolphin will not exactly be out of its range if is found to exist in our state. It is a creature found in the Ganges, the Brahmaputra and their larger tributaries to the bases of the hills. Their migratory behaviour, however, makes their presence possible here, particularly during the summer months.  
 
Gangetic Dolphin (Platanista gangetica) (Included on the basis of unconfirmed reports) Distribution: Found in the Ganges, the Brahmaputra, the Indus and their tributaries. Distribution in Sikkim: May exist at Singtam, Rangpo and Melli (the confluence of Teesta and Rangeet). Size: Generally 2 m in length. 

Description: The body of the blind animal is fusiform, the head being prolonged into a compressed beak. The colour ranges from dark lead to sooty black. The older individuals have light patches on the sides. 

Status: Endangered, Schedule I, (1991).
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Neru Sewa inagurates of Railway PRS Counter at Rangpo





Neru Sewa inagurates of Railway PRS Counter at Rangpo

PIC: Sanjay Agarwal
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Monday, December 28, 2009

MG Marg and 3 Idiots






 

 
I had a camera with me yesterday throughout the day out at Gangtok but the only pic i clicked was of the MG Marg and the poster of  3 Idiots.
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CBSE Board 2010 Examination Date Sheet Class XII

source: boardguess.com 
 

CBSE Board 2010 Examination Date Sheet

The countdown for the Board exam 2010 has begun. The first paper of on March 3 and the exams will continue till April 8. The first exam for the commerce stream will be business studies – to be hold on March 4. Political science – on March 5 – will be the first main paper in the humanities stream.

Date
Day
Subject Name
Time
03/03/2010
Wednesday
PHYSICS, RADIO ENG.&AUD.SYS, M PROD TPT &M COOP, POST HARV TECH&PRD, OPTICS, CLINICAL BIO-CHEM., COMM. HEALTH NURII, RADIOGRAPHY-I GENL, DESG & PAT MAKING, DYEING & PRINTING, ACCOMODAT. SERVICE, TRAVEL TRADE MGMT, CONFECTIONERY, CLSFN.& CATLOGUING, POULTRY PDTS& TECH, H EDN.& PUB HELATH
10:30 AM
04/03/2010
Thursday
BUSINESS STUDIES
10:30 AM
05/03/2010
Friday
FASHION STUDIES
10:30 AM
06/03/2010
Saturday
POLITICAL SCIENCE
10:30 AM
08/03/2010
Monday
CHEMISTRY, CONS BEHV & PROTCN, MGMT OF BANK OFFCE, APPLIED PHYSICS, MECH.  ENGINEERING,  FABRICATN.TECH-III, TV & VIDEO SYSTEMS, ELECTRICAL ENGG., MILK & MILK  PRODS. , B THERAPY &H DR-II, IOLOGY-OPTHALMIC, LAB. MEDICINE, FUND OF NURSING II,
RADIATION PHYSICS , ADVANCE FOOD PREP , CLOTHING CONST , BASIC DESIGN , FOOD PREPARATION , INDIA-TOURIST DEST , FOOD SCI.& HYGIENE , I T SYSTEMS , LIB. ADMN & MGMT. , PRIN &PRA-LIFE INS , POULTRY NUTR & PHY , INT TO FINANCL MKT , B CONCEPT-H &MED
10:30 AM
10/03/2010
Wednesday
ENGLISH ELECTIVE, FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH, ENGLISH CORE
10:30 AM
12/03/2010
Friday
HISTORY, BIOTECHNOLOGY, SECT PRAC & ACCNTG, STORE KEEPING, CASH MGMT & H-KEEP, ELECT APPLIANCES, AUTOSHOP REP& PRAC, CIVIL ENGINEERING, FABRICATN.TECH-II, AC & REFRGTN-III, ELN.DEV.& CIRCUITS, D E MICROPROCESSOR , OPHTHALMIC TECH. , MICROBIOLOGY , MAT.&CHILD H.NURII , RADIOGRAPHY-II SPL , BAKERY SCIENCE , TPT. SYSTEMS &MGMT , POULTRY DISE & CNT , ACTG FOR BUSINESS , FIRST AID &MEDCL C
10:30 AM
13/03/2010
Saturday
DANCE-KATHAK, DANCE-BHARATNATYAM, DANCE-KUCHIPUDI, DANCE-ODISSI , DANCE-MANIPURI , DANCE-KATHAKALI , DANCE-MOHINIYATTAM , MULTIMEDIA & WEB T
10:30 AM
15/03/2010
Monday
URDU ELECTIVE , AGRICULTURE , CR WRTNG TR STUDY , GRAPHIC DESIGN , PUNJABI , BENGALI , TAMIL , TELUGU , SINDHI , MARATHI , GUJARATI , MANIPURI , MALAYALAM , ORIYA , ASSAMESE , KANNADA , PORTUGUESE, GERMAN , RUSSIAN , NEPALI , LIMBOO , LEPCHA , BHUTIA , SPANISH , KASHMIRI , MIZO , URDU CORE , MARKETING , LENDING OPERATIONS , COMPUTER& LIFE I A
10:30 AM
17/03/2010
Wednesday
BIOLOGY , OFFCE PRAC & SECT , ESTB & MGMT OF FSU , DTP CAD & MULTIMED
10:30 AM
18/03/2010
Thursday
ECONOMICS
10:30 AM
20/03/2010
Saturday
PHYSICAL EDUCATION
10:30 AM
22/03/2010
Monday
MATHEMATICS , FLORICULTURE , COSMETIC CHEMISTRY , TEXTILE SCIENCE
10:30 AM
23/03/2010
Tuesday
PSYCHOLOGY , STENOGRAPHY-ENG , STENOGRAPHY-HINDI
10:30 AM
25/03/2010
Thursday
INFORMATICS PRAC. , COMPUTER SCIENCE , OFF. COMMUNICATION , ELE.COST A/C & AUD , SALESMANSHIP , ELECTRIC MACHINES , AUTO ENGINEERING , AC & REFRGTN-IV , DAIRY PLANT INSTRU , VEGETABLE CULTURE , YOGA ANATOMY &PHYS , MEAL PLNG & SERVIC , TOUR MGMT & MP PLN , REFERENCE SERVICE , B P O SKILLS
10:30 AM
27/03/2010
Saturday
HINDI ELECTIVE , TIBETAN , FRENCH , PERSIAN , HINDI CORE
10:30 AM
29/03/2010
Monday
ACCOUNTANCY , STORE ACCOUNTING , ENGINEERING SCI. , FOOD & BEV SERVICE
10:30 AM
30/03/2010
Tuesday
SANSKRIT ELECTIVE , SANSKRIT CORE
10:30 AM
31/03/2010
Wednesday
ENTREPRENEURSHIP
10:30 AM
01/04/2010
Thursday
GEOGRAPHY
10:30 AM
05/04/2010
Monday
HOME SCIENCE , ARABIC , FINANCIAL ACCNTG , BUSINESS DATA PRO.
10:30 AM
06/04/2010
Tuesday
MUSIC CAR.VOCAL , MUSIC CAR.INS.MEL. , MUSIC CAR.INS.PER. , MUSIC HIND.VOCAL , MUSIC HIND.INS.MEL , MUSIC HIND.INS.PER , PHILOSOPHY , TYPEWRITING-ENG , TYPEWRITING-HINDI
10:30 AM
07/04/2010
Wednesday
SOCIOLOGY , ENGG. DRAWING
10:30 AM
08/03/2010
Thursday
PAINTING , GRAPHICS , SCULPTURE , COMMERCIAL ART
10:30 AM
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CBSE Board Date Sheet 2010 Examination Class X

source: boardguess.com 


CBSE Board 2010 Examination Date Sheet

The countdown for the Board exam 2010 has begun. The Last-ever Board exams for Class X will Commence from March 3 with the music paper followed by social science on march 5. The exams for Class X will get over on March 31 with science Practical skills paper.
For Class X, these will be the last Boards to be conducted after the introductions of continuous and comprehensive evaluation (CCE) in CBSE schools across the country. After the exams in 2010, Class X will be marked on a year-long basis instead of a one-time external exam.

Date Day Subject Name Time
03/03/2010 Wednesday MUSIC CAR.VOCAL,
MUSIC CAR.INS.MEL.,
MUSIC CAR.INS.PER. ,
MUSIC HIND.VOCAL ,
MUSIC HIND.INS.MEL ,
MUSIC HIND.INS.PER
10:30 AM
05/03/2010 Thursday SOCIAL SCIENCE 10:30 AM
08/03/2010 Friday URDU COURSE-A, PUNJABI, BENGALI, TAMIL, TELUGU, SINDHI, MARATHI, GUJARATI, MANIPURI, MALAYALAM, ORIYA, ASSAMESE, KANNADA, ARABIC, TIBETAN, FRENCH, PORTUGUESE, GERMAN, RUSSIAN, PERSIAN, NEPALI, LIMBOO, LEPCHA, BHUTIA, SPANISH, KASHMIRI, MIZO, BAHASA  ELAYU, URDU COURSE-B 10:30 AM
11/03/2010 Saturday MATHEMATICS 10:30 AM
13/03/2010 Monday PAINTING, ELEM. OF BUSINESS, ELEM BOOK-K & ACCY, TYPEWRITING-ENG, TYPEWRITING-HINDI 10:30 AM
15/03/2010 Wednesday HOME SCIENCE 10:30 AM
17/03/2010 Friday COMM. SANSKRIT 10:30 AM
19/03/2010 Saturday HINDI COURSE-A, HINDI COURSE-B 10:30 AM
23/03/2010 Monday ENGLISH COMM. , ENGLISH LNG & LIT. 10:30 AM
26/03/2010 Tuesday SCIENCE-THEORY, SCIENCE W/O PRAC. 10:30 AM
29/03/2010 Thursday INTRODUCTORY I T 10:30 AM
31/03/2010 Saturday SCIENCE-PRAC SKLS 10:30 AM 
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Photo feature of GJMM dharna by Gorkha Janmukti Bidhyarthi Morcha at Rangpo- Darjeeling area

Photo feature of GJMM dharna by Gorkha Janmukti Bidhyarthi Morcha at Rangpo- Darjeeling area

pic by Sanjay Agarwal 

 



 The students on dharna


 

GJMM General Secreatry Roshan Giri came to Rangpo-Darjeeling area  to meet with students staged on dharna at middle of the road

 

Former CM NB Bhandari coming by foot from Rangpo, West Bengal during 04 hours dharna and bandh.

 

The affected vehicles on the other side of Sikkim-West Bengal border
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A photo inside a Gnathang monastery



I found this photograph inside a monastery at Gnathang, near Nathula Border. Very little is known about these people but the local people added that the person sitting was the Rimpoche of the Gnathang Monastery and the people surrounding were Sikkimese officials from British Administration. Gnathang, situated at around 12,000 feet above sea level is the most crucial place in Sikkim that changed the political scenario of Sikkim royal administration. A battle was fought between British and Tibetans where with the defeat of Tibetans, Sikkim too came under the scanner of becoming the British Protectorate. Thus Sikkim's administration went into the hands of the British. the year than was 1890. 
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Sunday, December 27, 2009

Coelogyne pantlingii, a new orchid species discovered in Sikkim in 2005



This orchid variety named Coelogyne pantlingii  had been discovered by Indian botanist Sudhizong Lucksom in Sikkim in 2005. This floral beauty finds place among the 21 new orchid species as reported in WWF report in August 2009.



Photograph courtesy Sudhizong Lucksom/WWF Nepal
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WINTER CAMP OF DENZONG BAHA’I INSTITUTE OF SIKKIM

 by Sanjay Agarwal




21 days Winter camp organized by Denzong Baha’I Institute of Sikkim began from 20th December 2009 at Baha’I School, Tadong. The camp will go till 9th January 2010. The participants are from Sumbuk (South Sikkim), Pachey (Pakyong) and Gangtok. The camp of this kind was first started at Saramsa (Ranipool) in December 2000 by Denzong Baha’I Institute of Sikkim. At that time the participants used to be from Bhutan, Darjeeling and Sikkim. But in the later years in order to make it convenient and manageable the Institute decided to decentralize  it and have it in different centers. Now for past three four years, for the people of Darjeeling it is organized in Darjeeling itself and for Sikkim in Sikkim itself.
This is a kind of spiritual empowerment program. Here participants are taught to be tolerant and encourage fellowship among the people irrespective of cast, creed, colour, religion, race and nation. They get insights of the concept, God is one, man is the creation of one God and source of all religion is one. In the camp classes are conducted in a participatory method. The participants are divided in a different groups. For each group one tutor is appointed who coordinates the class and help the class to go ahead in a right track. Each group has to go through systematic sequence of courses which is from level 1 to level 7. The materials which they study are designed each with different subjects. They are as follows:
Level 1: Reflection on the life of the spirit.
Level 2 : Arising to serve.
Level 3 : Teaching children’s classes, Grade I
Level 4 : The twin manifestations.
Level 5 : Teaching children classes, Grade II
Level 6 : Teaching the Faith.
Level 7 : Walking together on a path of service.
These materials represent the experience gained by the institutions in raising up individuals capable of working for the benefit of their families and society.
Mr. Samir Pandey, Mr. Ramesh Pradhan, Mr. Nikhil Rai, Mrs. Hemlata Pradhan, Mr. Rohit Chettri, Mr. Binod Pokhrel and Mrs. Devikala Lama are helping as tutors in the winter camp of Sikkim,2009. 

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Saturday, December 26, 2009

"Sikkim Gas Plant", Nainaam Industry located at Makha, 12 Km from Singtam

 by Sanjay Agarwal



25 Dec, Rangpo: Nainaam Industry located at Makha, 12 Km from Singtam boasts to place Sikkim as milestone, an one step ahead in self reliant state in India through its very own  gas production plant in coming days. Oxygen and Nitrogen which are a very essential life saving gas for Human and Industries will be produced in Sikkim itself from January 2010. Sikkim is totally dependent upon Siliguri, West Bengal from where the gas is supplied meanwhile. There is a frequent shortage of gas sometimes, sometime due to closure of highway which makes delay in arriving at appropriate time during useful porpose. 



According to Company CEO Mr NK Agarwal the 90% of the plant components fittings are being completed and within next couple of days 10% would completed, thereby allowing for final commissioning for full fledge production plant as a major production unit. It is projected that approximately 500 barrels of Oxygen and 200 barrels of Nitrogen would be manufactured everyday from this  plant. The company CEO further stresses that they would continue to work on next level of plan where other types of gases too can be produced from the plant.The majority of supplies are meant for Hospitals and Hydel Power Projects where these gases are mostly consumed for useful works, as said.

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Friday, December 25, 2009

Stone inscription from Pandam



This photograph had been taken from the blog of Subbiah sir'sometime back. He did told me about some stone inscriptions found in upper part of Pandam than and since more stone inscription had been recovered in recently i find some lesser known part of Sikkim history is set to be unfold.
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Thursday, December 24, 2009

Initial years of Sikkimese music in LP Disc

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Every time i look for Sikkim in Google search, unexpected results greets me. My eagerness to learn more about my Sikkim gets a new level excitation. Like most of the time i like sharing information with people around and this time around i am here sharing about "Music Of Sikkim (ABC LP) Music Of The Earth Series", a promo LP ABC Command from the Music of Earth Series. The information collected from different pages of web sites says that the music for "Music Of Sikkim" was recorded in Sikkim between December 1969 and January 1970. The LP contains 8 selections. Its label number is COMS 9002 ABC Command and published from Los Angeles. The Record was released in 1975. It is very exciting to note down the names of local singers of those days.


The sample is as follows

A1 Ceremonial and Folk Music - Lepcha Band Ceremonial Music 5:28
A2 Sukhbir (A Narrative Singer) 3:34
A3 Lepcha Narrative Song 2:53
A4 Tibetan Folk Song 3:49
A5 Sherpa Folk Song 3:15
A6 Metal and Bamboo Jew's Harps 3:43
B1 Music of the Buddhist Liturgy - Hymns for Shawms and Long Trumpets 8:07
B2 Private Memorial Service [excerpt] 14:46 
 
This disc is auctioned at popsike.com at 49 US Dollar while at ebay it is lowly priced at 8 US Dollars.

This particular Record DISC could be the third one that was released with music from Sikkm. The previous account had little Sikkimese materials in Barenreiter-Musicaphon BM 30 L 2009 (1965) LP Disc that contained music from the Nyingma monastery at Enchi (Gangtok), the remainder music was from the monastery of Tibetan monk at Rumtek. 




Vogue MC 20119 (1968) had some excerpts from the Sikkimese version of mystery dance drama while on side B had items being performed by Tibetans passing through Sikkim. The DISC Record of 1955 in Sikkim was in vinyl format and recorded in Nagra-Kudelski magnetophone at France is titled as "Musique Tibétaine Du Sikkim".  The credit for Musique Tibétaine Du Sikkim as Directed By [Series] - Gilbert Rouget, Photography - Didier Tarod, Recorded By - Serge Bourguignon, Technician [Sound] - Victor Borlandelli

Photographs from cdandlp.com and popsike.com

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Rangpo, the gateway to Sikkim prepares for the Christmas








 

Rangpo, the gateway to Sikkim prepares for the Christmas

PIC: Samjay Agarwal

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Wednesday, December 23, 2009

Dui Thopa Aasu By MS Khan




 FROM MY COLLECTION

DUI THOPA AASU 

(2005 2ND Edition)



By M S Khan

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Sikhim & Bhutan: twenty-one years on the north-east frontier, 1887-1908 By John Claude White



 FROM MY COLLECTION

Sikhim & Bhutan: Twenty-One Years on the North-East Frontier, 
1887-1908

By John Claude White

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Rabdenste Palace Ruins Pics (2009)



 

 

 




 

Wikipedia says:  
 
Rabdentse was the second capital of Sikkim. It was shifted from Yuksom in 1670 by Tensung Namgyal, the second Chogyal (monarch). However Rabdentse was too close to the Nepal border which had cold relations with Sikkim. After repeated raids on the capital by the Nepalese in the 18th century, the capital was shifted further inland to Tumlong in 1793 by Tshudpud Namgyal, then Chogyal.

The ruined capital is surrounded by thickly forested valley. It is near by Pemayangtse Monastery. Rabdentse have also a bird sanctuary. This monument is declared to be of national importance by Archaeological Survey of India. 

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Two Sikkimese philatelists received Sapphire award in "Stampmania 2009"




Singtam:  Shital Pradhan and Roshan Prasad from Sikkim received Sapphire award each at "Stampmania 2009" the First National One Frame Philatelic Exhibition held on 18-20 December 2009 organised by Baroda Philatelic Society, Vadodara. Around 448 philatelists from India had participated in the competition. The awards were categorized as Diamond, Ruby, Silver, Sapphire, Topaz and Certificate of Participation.  

Shital Pradhan had received the award for his theme “Sikkim through Philately” in ‘Not yet categorized’ category while Roshan Prasad received Sapphire award for his “Cricket – Indian Sub Continent” in thematic category. Roshan Prasad had represented the Sikkim Philatelic Society at Vadodara and had also received special award from the organizing committee. Four Philatelists from Sikkim had sent their exhibits in the national event that had Sumina Parajuli receiving the Topaz Award while Deepen Pradhan received the Certificate of Participation. 
 


It is an honour for our young budding philatelist from our state to compete at national level philatelic competition and receive an award. This achievement shall encourage our Sikkim Philatelic Society too, said Ganesh Pradhan, President, Sikkim Philatelic Society. Sikkim Philatelic Society congratulates each of them for their success, he further added.
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Tuesday, December 22, 2009

T B Pradhan elected President of Singtam Newar Kalyan Sangathan

Singtam: An annual meeting of Singtam Newar Kalyan Sangathan was held on December 21, 2009 at Bihari Dharamsala at Singtam. A day long function was held that had discussions on various topics for the betterment of the community. The new resolution passed in the meeting included major presence of the Newari women from Singtam in the organisation towards better society. Also included in the talks was the encouragement of Newari language and Newari customs among the people. Newari members from Golitar, Manpari Busty, Sirwani, Toppakhani, Sang Khola, Bardang, Sawaney, Shanti Colony, Lal Bazaar, Mandir Line and Shantinagar had attended the meeting.
The new portfolio of the organisation was also presented on the given day. The new body has TB Pradhan as the President, Saran Pradhan as Vice President, Mohan Pradhan “Neeraj” as General Secretary, BB Pradhan as Joint Secretary, Bikash Pradhan as Treasurer, Uday Pradhan as Store Secretary, Shital Pradhan and Ganesh Pradhan as Publicity Secretary, Santosh Pradhan and Sishir Pradhan as Assistant Publicity Secretary, Uday Pradhan and Kishore Pradhan as Cultural Secretary.
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Monday, December 21, 2009

Can anyone help me who is this person ?


Can anyone help me who is this person, he must be some officials from India, who visited Sikkim during the Chogyal's time. 
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Sunday, December 20, 2009

The Gorkhas - Sons of the Soil, Pride of the Nation

 Nanda Kirati Dewan, a journalist from Assam traces the origin of the Gorkhas in India.





Many people have amisconception about the Gorkhas in India - that they are foreigners and have migrated from Nepal. There could not be a greater mistake than this. The Gorkhas are in fact the aborigines of India and they can trace their history back to ancient times. The Gorkha community is the product of Indo-Aryan and Mongoloid assimilation from ages past. As a linguistic group they can trace their origin back to Indo-Aryan and Tibeto-Burman beginnings. In fact the Gorkhas consist of both Indo-Aryan and Mongoloid racial groups.


In the Mahabharata and Manusmriti names of Khasa are mentioned. They are in fact the Gorkhas. The Gorkhas spoke the language then known as Khaskura Khasas as a community existed in Nepal which it later changed to another ethnic name. The Lichchhavis, one of the aboriginal tribes of India originally lived in the plains of present Nepal. During the early centuries, the Gorkhas, the aboriginal tribe in India, migrated to Nepal and established themselves there. Other groups from India also migrated to Nepal which comprised high caste Hindus.
During the Muslim invasion of India in which they occupied part of North India from the eleventh century to the sixteenth century, many Indian tribes from the plains of India migrated to Nepal for the security and safety of their religion and culture. These migrants to Nepal were mainly of high castes and powerful groups, and they themselves established their kingdoms and principalities. You can safely deduce that the major part of the population of Nepal came from India who later came to be known as Gorkhas. In fact, the Shah dynasty which ruled Nepal for almost 240 years was from Rajasthan.

Besides this, there were the Kiratas or Mongoloid Gorkhas also, who were invited by the Mughal kings to be enlisted in the Mughal army. They were called Muglane. Later, this word became synonymous for any one who left India and went to India. Those Gorkhas who joined the army of Maharaja Ranjit Singh in Lahore were known as the Lahure. These terms are still in use in army circles.

In Nepal, during the eighteenth century, the king of Gorkha district (one principality was known by this name) became very powerful and its ruler, Prithvi Narayan Shah, began expanding the Gorkha kingdom. He conquered many small principalities such as the Baise Rajyas and Chaubisiya Rajyas. Prithvi Narayan became very powerful and he looked towards the east to establish his hegemony. He invaded the Kathmandu valley and annexed it. He moved his capital from Gorkha to Kathmandu and called his dynasty the Shah dynasty. This was in 1768. The conquest of the Kathmandu valley increased his thirst for more and he invaded the kingdoms of east Nepal. He conquered them in 1789 and annexed part of eastern Sikkim. He looked west and he had very brilliant generals who added the kingdoms in the west including the areas of present Uttaranchal, part of Himachal Pradesh and some parts of Kashmir too.
 
In the meantime, the British East India Company had conquered Bengal in 1788. Instead of focusing on trade, they began to conquer kingdoms and were advancing towards northern India and were finding the expansion of Nepal in conflict with their interests. The British were looking for a trade route to do business with Tibet and Nepal was a hindrance to their plan. It also posed a hurdle in their plans of annexing Punjab where Ranjit Singh was ruling. A war broke out between the East India Company and Nepal which lasted for three years (1812-1815). Although the Gorkhas showed great bravery, they could not withstand a larger and better trained army with modern weapons. In the battle of Khalanga, near Dehradun, a British general was killed in the battle, and the British were very impressed by the bravery displayed by the Gorkhas. Along with a memorial for the brave dead general, they also left a plaque of appreciation of the commander and the army of the fort which had resisted the advance of the British. They left a moving tribute to the gallant Gorkhas and their leader Balabhadra Kunwar. The British also sent an expeditionary force to Kathmandu to bring the brave Gorkhas to their knees. The politics of the durbar was such that Nepal accepted defeat though the Nepali generals were not ready to surrender. This resulted in the Treaty of Sugauli in 1815 through which Nepal lost almost a third of its territory. All its western territories were taken over by the Company and in the east, the area Nepal had conquered from Sikkim was also ceded to the British.

While the negotiations were going on and the text of the treaty was being prepared, some British officers thought out a plan whereby the Gorkhas were to be recruited into the Company army which would be a great gain for the Company as they had been greatly impressed by Gorkha bravery. Moreover, the vanquished Gorkhas were in the conquered land. So they could be enlisted in the army without any hitch. The soldiers were called by the British officers and asked to join the British army while wearing their own Gorkha colours. The Gorkha soldiers met the vanquished Nepali general Amar Singh Thapa and asked as to what should be done. Amar Singh Thapa told the soldiers that they were now under Company land and they could join the British army. This happened before the Sugauli Treaty was signed in 1815. Thus the Gorkha soldiers became part of the Company’s Indian army from 1815. However, the vanquished soldiers of the fort of Khalanga, with its leader Balabhadra Kunwar went to Lahore to join the army of Maharaj Ranjit Singh and, as was expected, waited for the British to wreak vengeance on them when the British attacked the Punjab. Balabhadra and his compatriots died fighting the Afghans when Ranjit Singh ordered them to fight Afghanistan. Gorkhas have insisted that they are not migrants to India. They say that they came to India along with their land, skills and culture. When one-third of Nepal was annexed by the British after the Anglo-Nepal War in 1815, the residents of that territory became subjects of the British East India Company. In 1857, when the crown took over India from the East India Company, the Gorkhas became citizens of British India and when India became Independent in 1947, they automatically became Indian citizens. 
 
The British raised the Gorkha army, the 1st Gorkha Rifles in 1815, the 2nd Gorkha Rifles on the same day and year, and the 3rd and 4th Gorkha Rifles were raised in 1857. The 5th Gorkha Rifles was raised some time later. In 1902, the 6th and 7th Gorkha Rifles were raised, and in 1903, the 8th Gorkha Rifles was raised. The 9th Gorkha Rifles was born in 1817 and the 10th Gorkha Rifles was raised in 1901. The Gorkha Regiment, the 11th Gorkha Rifles, was raised during World War I but was later disbanded. It was raised again by free India during the Indo-Pakistan war. During the time that the British quit India, the government of Britain and Jawaharlal Nehru’s new government agreed to split the Gorkha regiments. While India retained four regiments, Britain took the 2nd, 6th, 7th and 10th Gorkha Rifles to deploy them across its various colonies.
The East India Company returned the land conquered by Nepal from Sikkim in 1789 to the original Raja in 1817 under a special treaty of friendship concluded at Titalya. A decade later, the British found that Darjeeling, which constituted the area returned by the British to Sikkim in 1817, was very important in view of its weather and strategic location. So they got the Sikkim raja to cede this land to them. Later, the British added to this by taking over some territory as punitive measures against a reciltrant Raja. In 1865, Kalimpong was annexed by the Company from Bhutan and so a district was made. Since the climate of this District of Darjeeling was akin to England also. They made Darjeeling their summer town to escape from the respite of the cruel heat of the plains. A sizable population was already there but they were not enough. So the British brought native workers from Bhutan, Sikkim, Nepal and the plains of India to work their tea gardens, run shops, fill the secretariat of the district and the municipalities and provide a good quantity of labour. The population grew in no time and the Gorkhas were in majority. A population of 10,000 in 1850 grew to almost two and half lakhs by the end of the century. Schools were opened, trade developed and Darjeeling became a health resort town. Most of the Siliguri area had also been part of Sikkim. The present population of Darjeeling is around 10 lakh of which vast majorities are Gorkhas.

The Northeast: The Nepalese had relations with the people of India’s Northeast from ancient times. And after the Sugauli Sandhi of 1815, Gorkhas were recruited for Assam Light infantry which was formed in 1817 in Cuttack. The Gorkhas were brought to Assam and north-east regions to man the security forces, and after retirement the soldiers preferred to settle down there. In this way Gorkhas made the Northeast their home centuries ago. Migration for trade and employment also brought more Gorkhas to the region. At present, it is estimated that there are 52 lakh Gorkhas in the whole of the Northeast. The British gave the Gorkhas many amenities in these areas. The Gorkhas cultivated lands, tended cows for milk supply, cleared forest for agriculture and road making, established towns and bazaars. Besides, tea gardens developed in the Assam area and for these labourers were required in large number to run the factories going. The British did everything to lure the Gorkhas to new and pioneering areas of development in the North-East.

In this way, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya were populated by the Gorkhas and played substantive part of developing the area with the selfless service. Shillong became an army cantonment in the 1860s and the Gorkhas were stationed there. The presence of the Gorkhas there is evidenced by the establishment of the Gorkha Association in 1886. Furthermore presence of Gorkha Panchayat in 1932 at Gorkha Thakurbari Paltan Bazar Guwahati under the able leadership of Pahad Singh Gurung in today’s Nepali Mandir (AAGSU’s head office) establishes a fact Gorkhas were in majority in the virtual capital of North East since time immemorial. However due to continuous inflow of Nepali nationals from Nepal abiding Indo-Nepal Friendship treaty of 1950 strategically Gorkha Thakurbari came to known as Nepali Mandir after setting up of a Shiva Temple and the then Gorkha Panchayat was transformed into Nepali Mandir Prabhandhak Samitee. Today Radha Krishna Temple stands as Nepali Mandir the Gorkha Thakurbari area is known as Nepali Mandir.

Having been a part of Northeast society, many Gorkhas joined politics and many of them participated in the Freedom Struggle. Later many Gorkhas became members of the state assemblies too. Many good writers were born, fine poets composed their poems and many social leaders were produced by the North-East. To name a few Chabilal Upadhyay who had chaired the historic session of the then Assam Association in 1921 that gave birth to Assam Pradesh Congress Committee (APCC),Dalbeer Singh Lohar, Bhakta Bahadur Pradhan and Prasad Singh Subba were prominent freedom fighters of Assam. Today All Assam Gorkha Students’ Union (AAGSU) a major democratic Gorkha force which has been serving its fellow community men as federal army since 1976 is battling to establish these great patriots to create Gorkha identity politically and constitutionally in Assam. Thanks to the mainstream composite Assamese population for accepting Gorkhas as son of the soil, pride of the nation. The demand for Gorkha Autonomous Council (GAC)by giving birth to a political banner Gorkha Autonomous Council Demand Committee (GACDC) within the territory of Assam is a huge lift taken by AAGSU and supported by 28 other democratic community and students’ organizations is a giant leap

Other parts of India: Gorkhas have been residents in other parts of India for long periods. The fact that there is a Gorkha Welfare Association in Bangalore, Karnataka that was established in 1936 proves that Gorkhas were settled in south and west India much before Independence. Mumbai is home to a big number of Gorkhas. Even a city like Nagpur has a sizeable number of Gorkhas, who for decades, have been running the successful Gorkha Cooperative Society. The presence of Gorkhas in Jammu and Kashmir is established by the existence of the Gorkhanagar locality there. Punjab has a thriving Gorkha community, a throw back to the times when Sikh leader Ranjit Singh recruited them in large numbers in his army.

The district of Jalpaiguri was originally the part of the area taken over from Bhutan by the British in 1865. It was a suitable area for tea cultivation. Since labourers were required for this industry workers from Darjeeling, Sikkim and Bhutan and other parts of tribal area, mainly Bihar, congregated to fill the need of the labourers. Today too, there is a substantial Gorkha population in this district. This is one reason the demand for Gorkhaland includes the part that was originally a part of Bhutan.
 
Sikkim: The 1898 official Gazetteer of Sikkim records that there was substantial population of the Gorkhas in Sikkim. One of the Chhogyal had married a Limbu princes from Eastern Nepal and the princess had brought along with her as part of the dowry a quite a number of Limbu families. In time these Limbu families grew in number of sizable population. The Limbus are considered as one of the original inhabitants of Sikkim alongwith the Lepchas and the people of Tibetan origin. The Limbus are a group of the caste from Kirata clan and are included in the genus of the Gorkhas. The kings were not cruel as has been made to, comparatively, and the subjects not unhappily. However, the king had to abdicate in favour of the people opting for joining India in the seventies of the last century. At present it is the Gorkhas (they prefer to call themselves Sikkimese) form the majority of the population, and it has been Nepali leaders who have been chief ministers for sometime. The story of Sikkim is encouraging. The people gradually rose from the feudal system to a responsible government system now being citizens of India, and have been dedicated to the development of their state. Sikkim has produced some good political leaders, social leaders, litterateurs and experts in many fields. With the opening of many new colleges, high schools and now with a central Sikkim University, Sikkim has a bright future for accelerating development forward like the advanced state like Goa.

Darjeeling: The Gorkhas in Darjeeling, among all Gorkhas in India, have been perhaps the most vocal about their demands for long. Since 1907 the Gorkhas have felt their yoking together with Bengal was not appropriate. Various groups and political formations petitioned the government of the day in 1907, 1917, 1930, 1934, 1942, 1947 and 1952 seeking the divorce of Darjeeling and Dooars from Bengal and the creation of a separate state comprising Darjeeling district and parts of the Jalpaiguri district, even of Assam. The Gorkhas of Darjeeling led a massive all-India movement for the national recognition of the Nepali language in the 8th schedule of the Indian Constitution, a demand that first arose in 1956 in Dehradun but was taken on a national level by the Darjeeling-based All India Nepali Bhasa Samiti formed in 1972. The objective was achieved in 1992, but the Gorkhas had to struggle for forty years to achieve it. Different political parties since 1950 asked for a creation of state for the Gorkhas, and the movement for the state was quite intense. But unfortunately, only a local autonomy hill council calling it Darjeeling Gorkha Hill Council was given in place of Gorkhaland. This Council had no power even to appoint a chowkidar, and every decision had to be approved by Calcutta. This did not fulfil the aspirations of the Gorkhas of Darjeeling and now a more intense movement for the creation of Gorkhaland has been going on with the support all the Gorkhas residing in other parts of India.

The other hub of the Gorkhas is the region straddling Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand. Dehradun is a cantonment area but there are 10 lakh Gorkhas who now live in the state of Uttarakhand, of which Dehradun is the capital. Musician, litterateurs, social workers and others have emerged from the region. Mitrasen Thapa was a musician par excellence and his achievements have been noted by the Indian Post and Telegraphs Department, which issued a commemorative postage stamp in his honour. Many INA soldiers were from this area, and two famous sons of India, Major Durga Malla and Dal Bahadur Thapa were executed by the British after the surrender of the INA in l945. Durga Malla was the first martyr who embraced the noose like a garland and said that it was better to die than be a coward. The British tried to entice Durga Malla to urging him to admit that he had been forced to join the INA by pro-independence leaders. But he resolutely refused to say so. The Government of India has installed a statue of Durga Malla on the premises of Parliament House in New Delhi. Another great son of the region was Captain Ram Singh Thakur. Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose had appointed him the official musician of the India National Army. Thakur composed many patriotic and popular songs. At the behest of the Netaji, he composed a song for the INA with the words Jana Gana Mana in Hindi. Later this music was used for Rabindra Nath Tagore’s Jana Gana Mana, adopted as the national anthem of India. It was Anand Singh Thapa of Dehradun who in 1956 wrote to the Government of India explaining and requesting the need and right of the nepali to find its place in the 8th Schedule of the Constitution.

Aribahadur Gurung, who was a leader of the Gorkha League in Darjeeling, was the representative of the Gorkhas in the Constituent Assembly in 1946. He was also a member of the drafting committee of the Indian Constitution. His signature graces the copy of the Indian Constitution which came into force in 1950.
Gorkhas has been living in India as true patriots and they have served faithfully in the army, security forces of varieties and other services.

It is estimated that there are ten million (one crore) Gorkhas in India who are the citizens of the country. They speak Nepali as their mother language. Nepali was recognised as a national language in 1992, while the Sahitya Akademi recognised Nepali as an advanced literary language of India as far back as 1974. Gorkhas have done the country proud as bureaucrats, litterateurs, sportsmen, film directors, politicians and social workers. And who can discount the vital role they play in protecting the country’s territory as the most valourous of Indian Armed Forces personnel? Yet they are looked upon often by the people and termed as foreigners. So the Gorkhas have risen up with a demand for a political identity which consists of a separate state of Gorkhaland and the need to participate in the process of nation building.
(The article had been first published in Eastern Panorama and had been used in this blog with due permission from the writer.)
 
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The late Jungkyang Chogyal Palden Thondup Namgyal, seated with his mother the Queen Mother Denzong Lhayumkusho, daughter of Rakasha family of Tibet, and Prince Wangchuk whose late mother hails from the Samdrup Phodrang family of Tibet. Standing next to Denzong Queen Mother is the senior Rakasha Lhachamkusho, daughter of Raja Tsodrak Namgyal Taring of Sikkim, the eldest son of Chogyal Thutop Namgyal, who gave up the Sikkimese throne to his younger brother Sir Chogyal Tashi Namgyal in favor of staying in Tibet. The Taring family of Tibet enobeled into Tibetan high society by the great 13th Dalai Lama, is legitimately the unbroken elder line of the Royal Namgyal lineage of Sikkim, since Raja Tsodrak Namgyal was the Crown Prince of Sikkim, and his sons and grandsons today go by the Taring family name. Standing in the picture is also Princess Kukula, sister of the Chogyal married to the Phuenkhang family of Tibet. Rakasha Tsetop, Rakasha Tseten, Yap Dr. Paljor, Soden Wangdi, Chimi Paljor, and Princess Lhanzin with daughter Tseyang, Yap Tsukshin, husband of Princess Jeanla, and junior Rakasha chamkusho are a few to name. What a rare and wonderful picture of the Royal family of Sikkim.

source: blog.sikkimonline.info
original photographer : Mr Madhusudan Singh
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Newly married Bhim Rawat, Editor Himalibela newspaper, Gangtok with his wife


Marriage photograph of Bhim Rawat, 
Editor Himalibela newspaper, Gangtok

pic: Sanjay Agarwal
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Thursday, December 17, 2009

4th Day of Gorkhaland Hunger Strike at Parliament Street, New Delhi

4th Day of Gorkhaland Hunger Strike at Parliament Street, New Delhi 

 

photo shared by 

Bishal Rai
Secretary,
Gorkha Janmukti Morcha,
New Delhi and NCR Unit



Participants are as follows :

Ms. Pooja Gurung
Ms. Palden Sherpa
Ms. Kalpana Tamang
Ms. Kavita Gurung
Ms. Rita Lama
Ms. Binita Sharma
Ms. Roshni Biswa
Ms. Soma Rai
Ms. Saraswati Chettri
Ms. Sheru Tamang
Ms. Tanuja Rai
Ms. Manju Rai
Ms. Manu Tamang
Ms. Asha Ghatani



 

 

 





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Wednesday, December 16, 2009

Children of a single man forced the Goverment to set up a school



This one is really interesting, i am told that one of the school in Sikkim was opened more than two decades back because of 20 odd children of a single man. The story is from a small village in East Sikkim of a man who had three wives and a total of 20 plus children. The village where he lived did not had any school and especially for his students the department set up a primary school and that still runs till date. When asked about the reason for such huge family i was told a bout an incident that happened with that man. When his father died few decades back, no one had came to carry the dead bodies for some unknown reason. It is also said that he himself had carried the body of his dead father in "doko" (hand made bamboo carrier basket).  He then made a promise that for his funeral he shall have enough children that he does not have need other people's help. 


The red circle in the middle of the pic is the house of the man while the black circled houses belongs to his children's that had separated after they got married.

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I WOULD BE HAPPY IF I CAN GET USED/MINT WORLD WIDE STAMPS FOR CHARITY CAUSE. I WOULD BE USING THE FUND FOR THE SCHOOL DEVELOPMENT PLAN.

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SHITAL PRADHAN
C/O LN PRADHAN
SHANTINAGAR, SINGTAM
SIKKIM- 737134
INDIA

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When i started my blog on Sikkim way back in 2007, i had it clear on my mind that this blog shall help people look out for knowledge on Sikkim. I always wanted a knowledge house about Sikkim, its past, present and future. I do not know over the years how much did i succeed but my determination to let other understand my Sikkim is always giving me a push. with regards Shital Pradhan (himalayanreview@gmail.com)

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